Archive for the ‘Family’ Category

Update on Anna’s Post-Surgery Progress

Anna returned home last Wednesday (16 January). She’s feeling pretty good. She complains more about the itching than the pain. Anna did have to return to the hospital on Friday (18 January) because the needle that the doctors had put under her arm to collect the seroma fluid fell out. Seroma is a fluid that collects in the areas where the lymph nodes have been removed. Removal of this fluid is done for the patients comfort.

While at the hospital I also went to see a doctor about the pain I’ve had in my right elbow since July. I’ve been putting it off, because of Anna. The diagnosis is tennis elbow. Recommended treatment: Don’t use your right arm. Easier said than done; however, I’m currently wearing a brace which helps to remind me not to use my right hand/arm as much as I used to. Sadly, the doctor would like me not to use the computer for the next two months. I just smiled and said, “Sure.” Obviously with the all the writing I have to do this winter break, not using the computer is simply not an option.

Anna returned to the hospital this morning to hear the result of the lab analysis of the tissue removed during her surgery. The lab analysis found that five of the lymph nodes that doctors removed had cancer the others did not. So metastasis was fairly wide spread. Reduction on the main tumor because of the initial chemo was extremely significant. (There was a cluster of about nine smaller nodules). Before the initial chemo treatment Anna’s main tumor was nearly 5 cm in diameter. After the initial chemo, it was reduced to 1.2 cm. This bodes well for the effectiveness of her post-surgery chemo. The chemo regiment that her doctors have been using has obviously been quite effective on Anna’s cancer.

Anna’s next chemo session is next Thursday (24 January). Sadly, the hair that has been starting to grow back will once again disappear. She will have another three sessions and then her doctors will again re-assess the situations in terms of blood toxicity. As before, I suspect that Dr. Lee will push her to the edge of her endurance.

Monday, January 21st, 2013

Surgery Update

Anna’s surgery was a success, and here’s how it went:

This morning, I got a text message from the hospital at 7:59 am which informed that Anna had gone into surgery. The actual message said:

노지숙님 수술 시작합니다. 최선을 다하겠습니다.

This roughly translates as:

Roh Jisook’s surgery has started. We will do her well.

If the latter part of the message seems a bit creepy, blame the translator. I’m sure it’s an idiomatic expression and the meaning that it conveys is completely different from what the message seems to suggest in English (or at least I hope so!)

I was already awake and having a cup of coffee when the message arrived. BoA and Noah were still sleeping. I woke them about 30 minutes later after I had showered. I fed them breakfast and then we got ready to go to the hospital.

Around one in the morning, (I guess she couldn’t sleep) Anna sent a long text message that consisted of an itemized list of what she wanted us to bring. BoA and I did our best to find the requested items such as a hot pack, mandarin oranges, and a pillow.

We started off to the hospital around 10 and arrived by 11. Anna told us to go to the surgical theater on the third floor. When we got there we quickly learned that there were 3 surgical theaters on the third floor each with multiple operating rooms. After scouting around we not only located Anna’s surgical theater and her name promptly displayed on a TV screen but we also ran into a couple of Anna’s friends, 젤뚜루다 and 경아.  젤뚜루다 is a women who we originally met in Samcheok on the East Sea;  Samcheok is the place we’ve gone every summer since 2004 but we did not go this summer because of Anna’s breast cancer, so젤뚜루다 came to see Anna.  경아 is someone we have known since 2005 when we used to live at Woobang Apt.

At 12:50 pm I received another text message this one saying that Anna’s surgery was finished. The TV screen was updated a few minutes later. I kind of liked the fact that my phone got a message before the TV was updated.

Anna, however, wasn’t wheeled out of the operating theater for another 45 minutes, because they took her to a recovery area where they could observe her until the  anesthesia wore off.

Then at 1:35 pm Anna was wheeled out and when I asked her how she felt, she smiled and said, “I feel good! It doesn’t even feel like I got surgery!” Her eyes were completely dilated, she wore a big shining smile, her words were also a bit slurred and she giggled. (Anna doesn’t giggle).

I looked at her and I said, “I bet you do. The drugs they got you on would make anything feel wonderful.”

We followed the nurse and the attendant up to Anna’s room on the sixth floor (room 77 for those of you keeping score at home) and stuck around for about an hour. That’s when the nurse kind of shooed us off. We were actually getting ready to leave anyway, because I didn’t want Noah to miss his Taekwondo class. He’s been acting up lately, so I’d like to disrupt his schedule as little as possible while Anna is in the hospital.

Here are a couple of pictures. Anna after the surgery:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noah getting ready for Taekwondo:

 

Thursday, January 10th, 2013

Updating the update

Thursday, 6 December, 2012

Since my last post updating Anna’s progress, there have been some significant and positive changes.

First, Anna’s doctor has made a change in her schedule. He examined her on Saturday after Anna had finished her scheduled chemo treatment. This was suppose to be the last chemo treatment before Anna had surgery, but Anna said that during the examination her doctor became excited (sic!).  These are Anna’s words. Personally I can’t imagine her very staid, and even-keeled doctor getting excited, but anyhow… During the examination of her left breast and lymph nodes, he noticed a significant reduction in the size of the cancerous masses.

Anna said he was excited because this change had occurred in the course of the last two week cycle. Up until this examination, Anna had only described his opinion of her progress as being cautiously optimistic.  As we have both read on the internet, chemo doesn’t work for everyone the same way, so there is a bit of craftsmanship to the science involved in the administration of the chemo regimens that doctors prescribe to their patients. But now that Anna’s body seems to be responding very well to the current regiment, the doctor thinks it would be best to extend the current cycle for three more sessions to see if there is further reduction in the masses and more importantly annihilation of any metastasized cells in her body. This will push Anna’s surgery into February rather than the end of December.

Anna also had a chance to talk with her radiologist. It seems that Anna and the radiologist share a connection; that is,  Anna’s mother and the radiologist’s mother were school friends back when they were growing up in Incheon. These kinds of connections are very important in Korean society, and consequently the radiologist took a more detailed and careful look at Anna’s case and gave Anna a call on Tuesday. The radiologist described Anna’s breast cancer as resembling a bunch of grapes, with the largest number of masses in the breast itself and fewer clusters spreading through the lymph nodes from the breast to just under the  left underarm. Neither Anna nor I were aware that her cancer was grape-like, I think both of us envisioned it as one large tumor in the breast and smaller secondary tumor near the underarm.

In other news, the end of the school year is quickly approaching and that means Anna is busy filling out application forms for next semester. These applications are for  Noah so he can enter the lotteries that many of the best  kindergartens in our area use to select incoming students.  Since we have three children and are labeled a “multicultural family” we often have better odds at securing these coveted spots than your average Korean family with a single child.

Anna spent the morning filling out the applications and now it is time to run around to several schools, drop off our applications, the associated paperwork, and the obligatory “here’s my foreigner” that is required when one claims to be a multicultural family.

Korean spouse: “Here’s my foreigner.”
Foreign spouse squeaks, “Hi.”
School official looks foreign spouse over critically to be sure that he/she is really non-Korean.

Really, it’s gonna be the best part of the whole afternoon.

Thursday, December 6th, 2012

End of November Update

Friday, Novenber 30th

Anna is in the hospital for her last Chemo treatment before her surgery. She has now completed two cycles of Chemo. She was supposed to go in yesterday for her treatment, but she wasn’t feeling well, so she gave herself an extra day. She will be released from the hospital either Saturday evening or Sunday morning.

After her release she will have two weeks to recover and then she will do another round of tests to ascertain the effectiveness of current treatments. The following week (December 17-21), is the week her doctor believes he will schedule her for surgery. I’m hoping her surgery happens closer to the 17th rather than the 21st, so that we will be able to have Christmas with her in her hospital room.

In other news, Noah completed her first week at a new Taekwondo school. He seems to be enjoying it. He tried to do Taekwondo this summer, but he just wasn’t ready. Oh, he wanted to do it, but he just couldn’t sit, wait and listen long enough to be able to learn what the sabunim (master) was teaching. He’s doing better now. He’s better able to control his impulses and to listen and follow along.

Noah uses the “school dollars” to buy items at the school store. 17 November, 2012

On Saturday the 17th of November, Noah had an open-house at his daycare. The open-house was organized around  five different situations: school store, school restaurant, performance, robotics workshop, and sports competition. During the performance, Noah and his classmates performed an English song about brushing their teeth.  The costums they had the kids wear are clownishly funny. Sadly, Anna missed this performance because she was again in the hospital receiving Chemo, but BoA and I both shot video.

Here’s the video I took of his performance. (Quality warning – this is a video taken on a smart phone, so don’t be expecting Disney like sound and special affects. However, google/youtube were very kind. They informed me that they had detected some unsteadiness in my video and they could run an anti-shaking logarithm on the video I uploaded. I agreed, so it shouldn’t be too bad, or so we hope.)

BoA has a video of me doing a tug-of-war against some of the other parents. It’s me and two other mothers against a father and these two other mothers. We smoke them, and it kind of funny how serious the women that I’m teamed up with are. They insist that I take off my socks so that I’d have better traction on the linoleum floor. Unfortunately I can’t seem to get the video off BoA’s phone, I keep getting some error message saying that the device is not connected to my computer. I will try to find a micro SD card and save the video to the  card, then transfer it to my computer so I can upload it to youtube.

Grr. I suspect, Andy took all the spare micro SD cards for his Nintendo DS. Don’t worry. I’ll figure something out; just check back for an update.

Friday, November 30th, 2012

End of September through mid-October Update

Anna has completed the first stage in her battle against breast cancer. She has fought through three intensive chemo therapy treatments that have left her weak, nauseous, and eventually sick and feverish from her collapsed immune system.

Not suprisingly, during this cycle of treatment we have had our highs and lows. Especially this past week, Anna has been feeling really good, because she was given an extra week to recover from her chemo while the doctors analyzed her progress. In fact, last Friday, Anna was feeling so good that she opted to take Noah to the park for the day rather than send him to day care. This “mommy time” was definitely something that he needed, because he has on several occasions expressed his concern that he doesn’t think mommy is getting better and has wondered if she is going to die.

Of course, sickness as defined by a four year-old is something that puts you down for a day or two at most and then it’s gone, so he can’t understand why mommy’s been sick for three months and hasn’t gotten better.

We have also had our lows. About a week and a half ago, while Anna was punishing/exterminating a mosquito for daring to drink her blood, she managed to break the middle finger on her left hand. Depending on your point of view (human vs. mosquito) this news will come as either ironic or poetic. Here’s a picture of Anna in her claw like splint.

At the restaurant with Anna and her broken finger.

Yesterday was Anna’s big consultation day. She went to see her doctor to get the low-down regarding her progress in her breast cancer treatment cycle.

The report form Anna’s doctor was mostly positive. He was pleased with the success that the chemo had had on the metastasization in her lymph nodes. The spreading in the lymph system was fairly advanced, but it’s now been reduced to one main area. However, the doctor was somewhat disappointed with the chemo’s affect on the tumor itself. Anna only had a 1 cm reduction in its mass. It’s probably for this reason that Anna’s doctor is recommending a change in the toxic cocktail that will be administered to her on Thursday. (For a list of toxic cocktails or chemotherapy regimens used in treatment of different kinds of cancers see this link).

The regimen that Anna had been receiving included the following products: Adriamycin and Toxitel. The last is a Korean brand name of most likely a doxil/taxol based chemo product, but my inability to understand medical websites in Korean has thwarted my research. They are switching out the Toxitel, so her new treatment will consist of cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin and Fluorouracil (also known as 5FU). This new combination of drugs is most commonly referred to as CAF chemotherapy.

The doctor did raise one point of concern. He said that the PET scan revealed a spot on Anna’s lung. He said that the PET specialist believed that it wasn’t cancer, but was most likely scar tissue from an infection. Anna’s doctor, however, is fairly cautious and drew her attention to the spot because it will be something he will be watching in the coming months.

Wednesday, October 17th, 2012

Anna’s Return

Anna finally made it home on Friday, August 24th. The doctor released her because her fever was gone and her white cell count looked good. She arrived that Friday afternoon with more stuff than she initially brought to the hospital. How that is even possible, I’m not quite sure. I guess humans are simply magnets for stuff.

Not surprisingly, Anna and BoA were running late. Perhaps it was the accumulation of stuff that delayed her or perhaps it was the head shaving because her hair was falling out in clumps. In any case, Anna and BoA arrived much later than I anticipated. This made BoA late for her dentist appointment, and it also made it impossible for me to pick Noah up from his daycare.

Anna was annoyed by this and she snappishly said I should have asked Brandon, whose daughter goes to the same daycare, to pick up Noah up. I let the comment go, because if doctors were pouring a couple of hundred toxic chemicals into me, I’d probably be a little snappish as well.

Justly or unjustly this forced Anna to go to the daycare and pick up Noah while I went with BoA to the dentist. Anna was annoyed at me for not thinking ahead. I found her annoyance a bit off-base since I call her a noon to remind her of the afternoon schedule. If she was annoyed that I hadn’t known she was going to be late even though I reminded her of the afternoon schedule, then I guess I can accept the fact that I am not endowed with the gift of prophecy. Personally I saw Anna having to pick up Noah as karma; that is, the price Anna had to pay for being behind schedule.

Originally written August 25th

BoA’s video of Anna’s shearing

movie

Thursday, September 6th, 2012

What’s going on

Yesterday was my birthday. It was also VJ-Day or as they call it in Korea: “Liberation Day.” To everyone who sent me birthday wishes via facebook and/or email, “Thank you. I really appreciate it. I’m a youthful 29 with 16 years of experience!

This was a photo I took from the ridge above the beach in 2010. We usually stay to the southern part of the beach because the northern end of the beach has a pretty strong rip tide.

This will be the first time since 2004 that we won’t be at the beach for my birthday. We usually go to Yonghwa Beach in Samcheok. Of course, there is a very good reason for this. Anna, my wife, has been diagnosed with breast cancer. We ended up celebrating my birthday in the hospital. We had the cake and the candles, Noah serenande’d me with the Birthday song, but we couldn’t lite the candles because a women next to us was on oxygen.

Anna discovered the lump about month ago. It must have been around the 16th of July. She, of course, showed it to me and I told to get it checked out. So, she went to a local clinic that gives mammograms for free. They confirmed that the lump looked suspicious and urged her to see a specialist at a local hospital. Anna scheduled an appointment at a local hospital and went to see the doctor. He determined that Anna needed a biopsy. Anna had the biopsy on July 23rd and we got the results back on July 30th.

The biopsy confirmed that Anna has an invasive ductal carcinoma, histologic grade 2/3, nuclear grade 2/3 and a metastatic carcinoma in the lymph node in her under arm. The good news is that most breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas, so it is treatable. With cancer, however, it is always better to catch it before it metastasizes and this is why Anna had the bone scan and full body PET/CT done. Both of those came back clean.

We went to get a second opinion from an American-trained doctor in Hannam-dong. Hannam-dong is near the UN Village and many of the Ambassadorial residences, so he is well known for handling breast cancer cases among the foreign-service community here in Seoul.

Doctor Lee, the doctor who is well known in the Ambassadorial community, had Anna do additional tests and he determined that Anna has late stage 3 breast cancer. The initial mass is over 5cm and it has metastasized to the lymph system. The spreading of the cancer into the lymph system is fairly advanced, so the doctor recommended that Anna begin chemo immediately.

Although the spread of the cancer is isolated to the lymph system, the doctor wants to treat this aggressively, hence the immediate chemo. There are several benefits to having chemo before surgery. First it may help shrink the tumor so less of the breast needs to be taken, although the doctor will probably recommend that Anna have the whole breast removed, just to be safe. Second it immediately starts the process of dealing with the metastasized cells. With cancer, it’s the spreading that is more serious than the initial tumor.

Anna started her chemo therapy last week. The chemo has really kicked Anna’s butt. It has sapped all her energy and has done quite a number on her stomach. She hasn’t vomited that often, but she has felt pretty nauseous.

Anna will receive six chemo treatments over the next six weeks. After this initial treatment, the doctor will re-assess the situation; however, the most likely outcome will be surgery to remove what remains of the initial cancerous mass sometime in October. After surgery, the doctor will again assess the situation. He will either recommend additional chemo or radiological treatment to clean up whatever cancerous materials remain.

Obviously this second assessment of Anna’s situation is more severe than the initial assessment. The doctor suspects that poor calibration of initial chest MRI and PET/CT scans generated poor data. And it is the data from which a doctor makes his/her diagnosis.

Anna returned to the hospital on the 14th of August for a blood test and the doctor has decided to keep her overnight for observation. Anna was kept for several reason. First her white blood cell count had dropped dramatically, second her nausea was worse than the doctor anticipated and she has lost 4 kg in one week of chemo. We visited Anna yesterday and they were pumping her full of both clear and colored liquids.  It was a veritable rainbow of fluids.

BoA returned from her trip to Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia the night Anna returned to the hospital. Anna’s unexpected hospitalization resulted in me being unable to go get BoA at the airport.  I had to stay with Noah. Luckily, because her school group arrived late,  her teachers had planned to stay in a hotel near the airport, so BoA was able to stay with them and then she took public transit  home the next morning.

Our phone conversation must have been pretty shocking.

BoA: “Daddy where are you?”
Me: “I’m at home.”
BoA: “Didn’t you know I was arriving today?”
Me: “Yes, but I thought Anna had Kakoa Talked your teachers.”
BoA: “Why?”
Me: “Mommy is in the hospital and I have to stay with Noah.”
BoA: “Why?”
Me: “Mommy has cancer.”
BoA: <fast and short breathes>
Me: “She’s OK, but the doctor wants to watch her.”
BoA: “Wait. I’ll call back.”

We decided to wait and tell her about Anna’s diagnosis when she got back from her trip, but we hadn’t intended that we would end up telling her over the phone as soon as she stepped off the plane.  She was aware that Anna had a biopsy, because she went with Anna to the hospital that day, but she left before we got the results back.

We’ll be heading back to the hospital again today. Anna probably won’t be released until her white cell count ticks back up enough so that she no longer at risk of infection.

Thursday, August 16th, 2012

The Housing Situation in Korea: The 2010 Update

For Anna living with her mother is hell on earth. We have invited Anna’s mother into our home on several occasions, and it doesn’t take very long before the two of them are snipping at each other.

This is especially true now. As Anna has gotten older she has realized that much of what she had blamed her father for doing to the family was in many ways enabled by her mother, so anger that used to be only directed at her father is now finding itself directed at her mother.

Unfortunately for everyone involved there aren’t that many choices available for us in terms of where Anna’s mother can live. She is not well enough to live on her own. The hospice care which the government provides is only available for four hours a day and 20 hours a week and Anna’s mother needs more supervision than that.

One option would be to put Anna’s brother, Anna’s father and Anna’s mother all in one place together along with the hospice care workers 20 hours a week. The major problem with this solution is that Anna’s mother and Anna’s father hate each other. Anna’s father has never really forgiven his wife for putting him under house arrest for ten years with the Sacred Heart nuns. (Obviously this is something I will need to elaborate on in more detail at a later date).

Anna, however, is leaning towards this option because it would force her brother to take some responsibility; something he is loathe to do. This would allow us to live in one apartment and Anna’s mother, father, and brother to live in the other. The problem is that we need to be out of Jangmonim’s APT by march 1oth and out of our current APT by August 1st. We have the option to buy the apartment we are currently in, but it would cost us $230,000 and that is more than we believe it is currently worth.

Anna looked at a house that is for rent in our neighborhood. She said it was spacious; two bathrooms, a utility room or second kitchen, a real kitchen, a large living room, four bedrooms and a small study. All we need to do is come up with the key money (or deposit). No monthly rent would be involved; however the key money or deposit is $120,000. Sadly we don’t have $120,000 in cash stashed away in our mattresses. We do have about $70,000 tied up in deposit money in the two apartments we are currently renting, so we would need to borrow $50,000 to come up with the key money we would need.

The positive aspect to this is that we would save approximately $800 a month, even after accounting for about $200 a month to service the debt, in rent and maintenance fees between the two apartments, the disadvantage is that it would take all our current cash and then some to get the place which would leave us no money to get a second place for Anna’s mother, father and brother in August.

Personally, I feel that we should go for it. Anna’s mother, father and brother have really become dependent on us; especially Anna’s brother. I think we should take the house. We can stick Anna’s mother, father and brother in the APT we are currently in, use the 60,000 in deposit money we have tied up in Jangmonim’s Apt and another 60,000 we would borrow from bank to get the house. Then bank the extra cash we would save each month so we can pay off the loan in 5 years or 6 years.

Of course Anna’s mother, father and brother would be facing an August deadline to figure out what they are going to do. The path of least resistance for them would to be use the land they’ve been fighting about to either get a loan or sell it so that they can  buy the APT. Knowing Anna’s family they would of course wait until the absolute last minute to make their decision, but in this case this might  actually be a good thing. There is a huge glut of APTs for sale in Korea at the moment, so by August the asking price for this APT should be significantly lower than it is now; thus making it an appropriate investment for Anna’s family.

Friday, February 19th, 2010

Generative Grammar and Evil Penguins: Not Something You Can Predict

The Evil Penguin has been speaking in sentences for a while now in both Korean and English. The sentences he uses are for the most part functional such as: “Daddy up.” or “Daddy down.” He also uses sentences to help him learn about his world so the question: “What’s this?” is also quite common. But probably his favorite expression is: “It’s mine.” Or some derivation of the theme such as “It’s Daddy’s” or “It’s Dooda’s”

Today; however, he went and got all creative on me. He took Andy’s favorite expression: “Stinky Butt” and combined it with the possessive to create the unique expression: “Daddy’s stinky butt.”

I stopped my dish washing and thought. “Gee, isn’t that precious.” He is, after all, an Evil Penquin.

Friday, February 19th, 2010

One Decisions I’m Glad I Didn’t Make

A couple of weeks ago Michael R. through facebook posted a link to the Chronicle of Higher Education called “Graduate School in the Humanities: Just Don’t Go.”  After reading it was kind of thankful that I didn’t go.

Back in 2003 was I seriously considering returning to the US and getting my PhD. I had bought a GRE preparation book and I was religiously studying the math section for an hour to 90 minutes each day. I wasn’t worried about the verbal section. I had taken an online diagnostic test, I was perfect on the verbal section but so bad on the math that they had to create a new category for me called ignoramus. 

I was a bit surprised by that because I had taken the GRE back in 1992 in order to get into the University of Texas.  At that time I had held my own in the math section. Of course, if you don’t use it you lose it and I certainly hadn’t done any serious math since the math I had done to pass the GRE in 1992.

Of course, one thing about the whole GRE that still kind of irks me is that the 1993 test was no longer considered valid when I considered returning to graduate school in 2003. I’m not entirely sure why. One would think that over time one gets more knowledgeable, wiser and better able to handle the rigors of higher education; especially if one has already jumped through that particular hoop once. Obviously the powers-that-be don’t see it that way. The one thing I have learned from my years in Asia is that people who wield power love to make other people jump through their hoops.

Undaunted by the needless and irrational hoop jumping, I researched specific graduate school programs, and I even went so far as to contact Paul Matsuda directly at the University of New Hampshire to inquire about what my chances would be for getting funding. After an exchange of five or six emails, he said he thought my chances would be pretty good since I had experience in teaching in both ESL and EFL setting as well as experience within the specialization I was intending on concentrating on, that is, Second Language Writing for science and engineering.

Obviously being able to get my PhD at the University of New Hampshire would have been ideal in many ways. I grew up in the area so it was close to my family and very familiar to me. In addition I had spent a year and a half doing substitute teaching in many of the local school districts so I had knowledge of the local schools and probably contacts at many of them as well which would be helpful as the kids reached school age. I even looked into what it would take for me to update my teaching credentials as a possible fall back plan should the whole PhD thing founder for some unknown reason.

I was serious committed to the idea, but the major draw back and probably the main reasons why I decided not to do it was the cost of housing in the area. Although I was fairly confident that I would get some kind of funding to do my PhD, it would not be enough to support a family of four at that time in that place especially in a housing market which was on fire. Queue up Don Ho: “Ah those tiny bubbles…”  After racking up a significant amount of debt the first time I did graduate school, I could not justify doing it again.

Another contributing factor, but not the main factor, was the fact that America had really changed since I had left in 1997, and in many ways it had not changed for the better.  I just couldn’t see going back, raising children and working in such a negative atmosphere. Although living on the other side of the world sheltered me from the worst of it, I still couldn’t completely avoid it. We live in a globalized, information saturated and media obsessed world, so unless you crawl under a rock somewhere in Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard or dig your self a hole at 34.7°N 85.7°E on the Tibetan plateau (link / archive) the chances are pretty good that you cannot escape the influence of the rest of the world. 

Although I would like to blame 9-11 for this change, I know that it’s not the cause. It was merely an intensifier. I don’t think there was a single cause. In fact many American are probably unaware of the changes at all, because they have happened slowly over a long period of time. Even though there is no single cause, there are however lots of identifiable contributing factors. Some factors, like the establishment of the military industrial complex, go back as far as World War Two. Some other obvious contributing factors were Vietnam, Watergate, and disgrace of the Nixon administration. Thus, many of the factors that are influencing the economic, political, social and cultural aspects of American society today go back to the second half of the 20th Century.

Friday, January 22nd, 2010